Week 13 636 Reflection
This week we had to put together a rough draft of our research paper. I know I still have work to do on it by looking at the rubric. I am still figuring out the how to do the header, and I need to create some graphs showing my results and add the screen shots. Most of it is written, though. We also had to read two of our fellow students’ draft papers this week for our blog.
I looked at two of my classmates’ and thought both of them did a great job. One of the papers that I looked at was particularly strong. The only thing I thought the writer could improve on was the charts; they were a little confusing to me. The other paper I looked also needs work on the graphs. The writer outlines the results but the results aren’t graphed. They both were interesting projects. I know what I need to work on is, like these other two, making charts or graphs. I also need to look at the rubric again to see where my report needs work.
I did not make Twitter this week but looked at what people talked about. Most posts concerned the research paper. I noticed there is a 10 page max, but that does not include appendices or bibliography. I need to make sure I stay under this page limit. There is also a exemplary presentation at http://teacherk8.weebly.com/technology-in-the-classroom/research-project-presentation that I watched. I see I still have a lot of work ahead for me.
Next week is our last week of class. We are going to be using screen-o-matic to record our project to present it. I have checked to see if I can get screen-o-metic to work, and it did. I will have to look at the rubric to see what our instructor wants for that. I believe that is our last assignment. I still have work to do in this class and my other class and then I will be ready for a break. I have been working hard this semester and the long break is going to be nice.
Week 12 Reflection 636
This week we wrote about the characteristics of an engaging action research report. I think the characteristics that make an action research report engaging have to do mostly with the organization of the paper and the chosen components. I can see how a research report could be pretty dry reading. The way to make it come alive is to paint a living picture of the situation that brought about the need for the research in the first place and then take the reader through the research steps. I think by doing this you will keep your readers engaged as they are going through the steps of your research paper.
In responding to others’ blogs, Tristan made a good point that action research relates to real world problems. We are drawn to that that we would like to see make a difference in our own classrooms. Sara talked about how the introduction is important. I agree, because if you don’t hook the reader in the beginning, they will likely not want to read anymore. Sarah suggested humor, using first person when writing, and creating a straight forward title. Genevieve talked about how she likes the quotes that some reports used. I agreed—I also liked the quotes used in the papers. She also talked about incorporating charts, pictures, or diagrams. I said, “I think I was going to make some charts for some of my results because I think a chart is more visually appealing than just writing about it.” Everyone had great ideas that I will think about as I start my paper.
We didn’t have Twitter this week so I am just thinking about my paper and how to get all my components together. I will start to make charts for some of my research and try to make an outline for my paper so I can begin to see it coming together. Once I get that part I just need to put in the information in the right spots and start writing.
I think the characteristics that make an action research report engaging have to do mostly with the organization of the paper and the components. Maheshwar (2012) writes about how Borgia and Schuler describe components of action research as the “Five C’s”:
Commitment: Time commitment should be carefully considered.
Collaboration: In an action research paper, all participants are equal to each other in terms of giving ideas and suggestions.
Concern: In the research process, participants will build up a group of “critical friends” who trust each other and the value of the project.
Consideration: Reflective practice, which involves a review of professional research like action research.
Change: For humans, especially teachers, change is continuing and it is a significant element in retaining our effectiveness.
These are all characteristics that one should think about when starting an action research project report. For the organization of my research paper I think I am going to follow the format that I wrote about last week. It will be in six sections: the introduction, background literature review, methodology, presentation of findings, discussion, and conclusion. I will also look at the rubric and see if I need to include anything else.
Looking at the example report “If I Were a Camera: Some Possibilities for Visual Arts in a Reading Classroom” by Deborah Higgins, I like how she starts with the introduction. I also like that she talks about the background of her students. I think that could be a good element to add to my paper. I can see how a research report could be pretty dry reading. The way to make it come alive is to paint a living picture of the situation that brought about the need for the research in the first place and then take the reader through the research steps. I also like Higgins ended her paper by summarizing what she learned. When the findings are laid out in a real life context like this, they become much more meaningful. In looking at “Assessment: A New Science Teacher’s Attempt to Use
Assessment as a Form of Conversation” by Christopher O. Tracy, what stood out for me was the format he used. He started with an introduction, research question, the students, data collection, findings, reflection and final thoughts. This was also another good format for a research paper. He also had his appendixes at the end. It was good to look at another example.
Below is a good chart that shows the characteristics of an action research paper. This was taken from Hien, T. T. T. (2009). It is a good visual to track the flow of your action research.
Looking at these exemplars has given me some ideas on how to write up my action research paper in a way that won’t be boring. I will make sure that I include the main points of my action research and then add more if needed. If I follow my outline, I should be ok in writing up my report. I am looking forward to writing up my findings and sharing them with others.
Action Research Projects: Exemplar Projects – LMTIP. (2002). Retrieved November 19, 2015, from https://gse.gmu.edu/research/lmtip/arp/ex
Hien, T. T. T. (2009). Why is action research suitable for education. VNU Journal of Science, Foreign Languages, 25(2), 97-106.
Higgins, D. (2000). If I Were a Camera: Some Possibilities for Visual Arts in a Reading Classroom. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from https://gse.gmu.edu/assets/docs/lmtip/vol2/D.Higgins.pdf
Maheshwar, D. (2012). Action Research in Education. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from http://www.vkmaheshwari.com/WP/?p=402
Tracy, C. (2002). Assessment: A New Science Teacher’s Attempt to Use Assessment as a Form of Conversation. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from https://gse.gmu.edu/assets/docs/lmtip/vol2/D.Higgins.pdf
Update Data Collection 636
I think my data collections for this class is done. I surveyed two other classes on Kahoot and this is the results I got from them. For one class out of 16 kids, 5 said they didn’t like Kahoot and the rest did. Would you recommend it to other teachers all said they would except two. All students said it would increase participations except for three.
The other class of 18 kids all except 6 kids like Kahoot. All students except 5 would recommend it to other teachers. All thought it increased participation. So looking at these results I think most students like Kahoot, would recommend it to other teachers and think it increases participations.
Week 11 Reflection 636
For this week’s blog, we wrote about, “How will you format and disseminate your research?”I said I will write my paper up as a standard dissertation. It will be in six sections: the introduction, background literature review, methodology, presentation of findings, discussion, and conclusion. Once the paper is finished, I will have to find a good way to distribute it to others who might benefit from the research. I think the teachers in my building would benefit from it, so I plan to share what I learn with them.
In responding to others’ blogs, Tristan is going to present her research at a conference. I said I think many will find that interesting because I see more teachers moving toward a flipped classroom. Sara had some good suggestions from Öhman and Löfgren, including
– Write the report in a way that is easy to understand and clearly contextualized
– Keep it short
– Be clear in presenting methods
– Avoid too many detailed descriptions of the results
– Relate your findings to existing knowledge and theory
Provide a discussion of the applicability for theory development and practice of the research field.
I thought these were good to know. The “keep it short” suggestion was interesting since I think it is going to be hard to keep this report short. Sarah wrote this: According to Merriam & Tisdell (2016), “There is no single correct way to write up any research study.” This is good to know as I write this up the research as best I can and hope I do a good job on it. Peter has a good three-section format that he is going to use: The first section, as he quoted from Marshall (2014), “introduces the topic or problem and purpose of the study, the general research questions, and design of the study.”The second section, which he got from Merriam (2016), will include “a description of the context of the study.” The final section will include his findings. I thought it looked like it is going to flow well.
We did not have Twitter this week for this class. I am now trying to figure out my notes and observations. I will then see what I have, look at the rubric, and start writing. I think this part will be the hardest, but if I start now, then I can go over, redo, and make sure I have all of the parts that I need.
Essential Question: How will you format and disseminate your research?
“Format” describes how you are going to organize your paper and “disseminate,” according to dictionary.com, means “promulgate extensively,” which means to publish or make known. Before writing up study results, it is important to determine your audience, select a focus, and make an outline (Merriam & Tisdell, 2009).
For my report, I think my audience will be educators. Kahoot is a great tool to use in class, and I want to share my results with other teachers who can use this with their students. The next step is to select a focus. According to Merriam and Tisdell (2009), “The focus states a purpose and then fulfills the promise. Coming up with a focus mean deciding what you want to tell your readers. You should be able to state it in a sentence or two.”The focus is closely related to the research question. When I report my findings, they will focus on whether or not Kahoot increases student engagement and participation.
The next step is outlining your report. “All reports need an introduction defining the problem that was studied and, depending on the audience, information about the methodology. The main body contains the findings in the form of topics that have been listed and organized in some way. A conclusion summarizes the study and it findings” (Merriam & Tisdell, 2009). Making an outline will help me break the report down in parts that make sense. If I type the outline into my paper and begin to fill it in, I will be sure to stay on track and get different parts of the report into the right places. It will also help me see if I have included everything.
Merriam and Tisdell (2009) state that “Writing the research can be made easier by breaking the task into smaller steps”:
Assemble all the materials related to the study in an organized fashion.
Determine the intended audience.
Select a focus that meets the interest of the intended audience and addresses the original purpose of the study.
Outline the report once the central message has been determined
The methodology section, according to Merriam and Tisdell (2009), is the place to reference previous research and literature, and they also suggest visuals should be included in this section, depending on the targeted audience. This section should also explain how the study was done, how data were collected and analyzed, and the measures that were taken to ensure validity and reliability.
I think I will write my paper up as a standard dissertation. It will be in six sections: the introduction, background literature review, methodology, presentation of findings, discussion, and conclusion.
Once the paper is finished, I will have to find a good way to distribute it to others who might benefit from the research. But I will need to be thinking about this as I am writing the paper. Determining the audience for the report and preparing a dissemination plan are closely related. In “Beyond Scientific Publication: Strategies for Disseminating Research Findings,” it is suggested that, in creating a dissemination plan, researchers should consider several key questions:
• Goal: What are the goals and objectives of the dissemination effort? What impact do you hope to have?
• Audience: Who is affected most by this research? Who would be interested in learning about the study findings? Is this of interest to a broader community?
• Medium: What is the most effective way to reach each audience? What resources does each group typically access?
Execution: When should each aspect of the dissemination plan occur (e.g. at which points during the study and afterwards)? Who will be responsible for dissemination activities?
I think these will be good questions to ask myself as I get started on the writing.
I am ready to start putting my findings together. I have emailed my mentee and she has answered questions for me. Now I need to look at the rubric and see what all needs to be included to make sure that I cover it all. I think if I follow the above suggestions I can get through this. I know this will be the hardest part, but if I plan it out and follow an outline, I know I will be fine.
Beyond Scientific Publication: Strategies for Disseminating Research Findings. (2001). Retrieved November 13, 2015, from https://depts.washington.edu/ccph/pdf_files/CARE_Dissemination_Strategies_FINAL_eversion.pdf
Dictionary.com. (2015). “Disseminate.” Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 11, 2015, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/disseminate
Merriam, S., & Tisdell, E. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Week 10 Reflection 636
This week we blogged about what primary concerns exist in ethics, validity and reliability in AR? We were asked to write about how we you are managing, or plan to manage, these concerns within our studies? I said the best known strategy for ensuring internal validity of a study is triangulation. This is when you use multiple sources of data to confirm findings. Triangulation “is a powerful strategy for increasing the credibility or internal validity of your research.”I think this is the best and easiest way to validate your research. By using a variety of resources, you can confirm that what and how you are researching is accurate and relevant and that your findings are valid. By following Merriam and Misdeal’s suggestion, I will manage my concerns within my study.
In responding to others’blogs, Tristan suggested great ways to show the trustworthiness of your data by using an audit trial, triangulation, and rich, thick description. I think this is very important to know. Sarah pointed out four possible sources of errors in research from Brink (1993):
1The researcher- how the study is designed
2The participants- the truth of responses
3The situation- which data are collected
4The data collection methods or analysis
I thought these were good to point, and I will think about them when I am doing my research. Sara had a quote from Brown (2005): “the important feature of triangulation is not the simple combination of different kinds of data, but the attempt to relate them so as to counteract the threats to validity identified in each.” I thought this was good information to know.
In our Twitter session, the questions related to our research study. We talked about how do we know when we have enough data. I said when we are getting about the same results then we have enough data. One important point I took from Twitter is to portray my participants in a positive way and don’t skew the research. Make sure you are confidential with your participants. This is all good to know for when I start writing up my paper. I will remember these points.
Question: What primary concerns exist in ethics, validity and reliability in AR? How are you managing these concerns (or how will you) within your study?
I think there are some concerns when conducting research that deal with this question. I will point out how you can manage these concerns. According to dictionary.com, ethics is a set of principles of right conduct. It is the moral choices that a person makes. Validity has to do with how solid your work is, like are the research questions, study sample, methods, and findings properly prepared so that the results you get in your study will be valid. Reliability is accuracy or honesty. There are some things you can do as a researcher to manage these concerns within your study.
According to the 2003 article titled “Research Ethics: Background and Definition,” “Research ethics provides guidelines for the responsible conduct of biomedical research. . . . When even one part of a research project is questionable or conducted unethically, the integrity of the entire project is called into question.” This is why it is so important that you are honest and ethical when conducting your research. It is best to keep your opinions to yourself and keep a neutral stand on what you are researching. “The best a researcher can do is to be conscious of the ethical issues that pervade the research process and to examine his or her own philosophical orientation vis-a-vis these issues” (Merriam & Tisdell, 2009).
Merriam & Tisdell (2009) also quote Patton (2015): “The trustworthiness of the data is tied directly to the trustworthiness of who is collecting and analyzing the data and their demonstrated competence.” You want to show that your data is valid and trustworthy; otherwise, why would anyone want to read it?
Merriam & Tisdell (2009) add that “Validity and reliability can be approached through the attention to the way the data is collected, analyzed and interpreted.” Probably the best known strategy for ensuring internal validity of a study is triangulation. This is when you use multiple sources of data to confirm findings. Triangulation “is a powerful strategy for increasing the credibility or internal validity of your research.” I think this is the best and easiest way to
validate your research. By using a variety of resources you can validate your
findings and confirm that what and how you are researching is true to your knowledge.
Merriam & Tisdell (2009) state that “Reliability refers to the extent that the research findings can be replicated.” This is when someone tries your research and gets about the same results. Sure, some of the results may be a little different depending on the person and the students they are doing the research with but, overall, they should have almost similar results.
Merriam and Tisdell (2009) suggest strategies researchers can use to ensure consistency and dependability, including triangulation, peer examination, investigators’ position, and the audit trail.
I think an audit trail would be another great one to use. This is when you keep track of all of your research activities—sort of your journey through your research. I think you should keep track of what you did each time and who was the group you were working with, the time, day, and other things such as that. It is good to keep track of everything you did with that group on that day. You can then compare days to see if results vary.
If you follow what Merriam and Tisdell suggest, I think you will manage your concerns within your study and come out with a reliable, valid and trustworthy research that others will be able to use and study if they wish too.
Ethics. (2015) American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Retrieved November 3 2015 from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ethics
Merriam, S., & Tisdell, E. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Research Ethics: Background and Definition. (2003). Retrieved November 4, 2015, from http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/Research_Ethics.pdf
Validity. (2015). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved November 03, 2015, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/validity