Essential Question: How do instructional design stages help us understand online teaching?
“Instructional Design focuses on what the instruction should be like, including look, feel, organization and functionality” (Gordon, 2016). Instructional design is like the back bone of the whole process. Understanding instructional design phases helps us to understand the mechanics of online teaching, which has to be set up in learning stages for the process to work effectively.
As Gordon (2016) writes, “Creating effective training . . . calls for the application of Instructional Design skills along with processes that produce authentic, well-organized, and engaging materials.” For online teaching to succeed, the course must be put together by someone with Instructional Design skills.
ADDIE is one popular model for Instructional Design. It is used in business and education because it spells out how to design both professional training materials and online curriculum. The acronym’s letters stand for the following:
In this phase, the designer figures out The Who, What, Where, When, Why and By Whom of the process
Next a blueprint is laid out for the structure of the course
This is the creation phase where the blueprint is applied in design
Deliver the instruction
Assess how well the design worked. This should be done at the end and after each ADDIE phase. (Gordon, 2016).
Online courses take months to prepare and set up. For that reason alone, teams have to be organized to make the process go as smooth as possible. A team that follows the ADDIE model and the steps below should be able to create an effective online training. Gordon (2016) lays out the following steps to take before, during, and after building a website or online training:
4 Check accessibility
5 Test and Refine
Morrison (2013) asserts that “A highly functioning team can produce quality, rigorous courses that are effective for supporting learners in reaching learning objectives.”
According to Puzziferro & Shelton (2014), “Creating the team culture, defining the learning vision and framework, identifying the resources, and crafting the production workflow for effective teamwork are all critical planning elements for administrative leadership.” It takes more than one person to create an online class. It takes a team and they need to follow a process to make the class successful.
Puzziferro & Shelton (2014) adapted “Seven Principles of Good Practice” for a designer to apply when creating an instructional tool for online delivery:
1.Good Practice Encourages Contact Between Students and Faculty
2.Good Practice Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students
3.Good Practice Uses Active Learning Techniques
4.Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback
5.Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task
6.Good Practice Communicates High Expectations
7.Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning
These are all excellent steps to follow when designing any class, but are especially important when designing an online course. If one adheres to the ideas listed above and works collaboratively with others, I am sure the end product will be excellent.
There are a lot of good ideas out there to guide instructional designers. All point to the need for a good team that can work through an intentional design process that factors in the diverse needs of the learners on the other end.
Gordon, A. (2016). Instructional Design Roles and Responsibilities. Retrieved October 02, 2016, from http://instructionaldesign.gordoncomputer.com/IDRoles.html
Morrison, D. (2013). Online Learning Insights. Retrieved October 02, 2016, from https://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/tag/team-based-instructional-design/
Puzziferro, M., & Shelton, K. (2014). A model for developing high-quality online courses: Integrating a systems approach with learning theory.